Step one is complete and you have a full view of the world in which your characters live and die. Maps and genealogical charts hang over your desk. Social hierarchies are established. Palaces and alien races are named and given histories of their own. Now comes the hard part.
How do you present this world to your reader in a way that isn’t boring?
An easy technique is to have the reader learn about the world alongside the characters. The process of discovery works for coming of age characters, strangers to the world, and discoverers. The type of characters you choose for your story shapes how the world is viewed, however. A twelve-year-old mutant teen is going to have a different perspective than a retired cop.
Understanding point of view helps with structure. First person narration allows for asides and gives an intimate emotional connection to events. These reactions tell the reader how the character feels and (more subtly) what the character feels her feelings should be in a situation. Meta-emotions are the stuff of great internal conflict and tell the reader about that world’s societal norms. On the other end, the sprawling multi-character epic is a point of view choice that gives the reader smaller chunks of the world. This helps spread the burden over multiple characters’ shoulders.
Slipping exposition into dialogue is a great technique if done well. In order to pull this off, a character needs a reason to talk about a topic. This has to be more than a simple explanation. I am a teacher, but I won’t randomly talk to the teacher next door about her grading system. It is a topic we both know too well too be interested in unless we’re challenged. Perhaps the new principal has a system that he prefers and insists that all of the teacher use. That is a great reason to compare the new system with the old one and build the world of that school climate.
HIGH-CONTEXT AND LOW-CONTEXT CONVERSATIONS
There is a difference between high-context and low-context conversations. High-context conversations happen between characters with a rich common history. There is usually little that hasn’t already been said between these characters and an information dump would be awkward. Examples of these relationships are older married couples and long-time co-workers. Conversely, low-context conversations are between characters with little or no history and are in a “getting to know you” stage of their relationship, whether friendly or antagonistic. Either of these relationships can be manipulated to give information about the greater world, but both should be recognized.
AVOID PAGES OF EXPOSITION
If at all possible, try to use these methods to build the world around your characters. To read more about this topic, try my earlier post on World Building.